Agriculture has the potential to lift more people out of poverty than any other sector in Africa.
Accordingly, the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), a policy framework for agricultural transformation, wealth creation, food security and nutrition,
economic growth and prosperity for all, was adopted to be domesticated by all African Union Member States.
From 2021, MFPD will be organizing conferences with farmers in the civil society on the value of CAADP.
Background of CAADP: The African Union Assembly of Heads of State and Government adopted the CAADP in 2003 in Maputo, Mozambique as the Flagship Programme of the African Union for agriculture and food security.
The Maputo Declaration on CAADP sets broad targets of 6 percent annual growth in agricultural GDP, and allocation of at least 10 percent of public expenditures to the agricultural sector.
From 2003 to 2013, CAADP implementation demonstrated that Africa had well-crafted, home-grown framework guiding policies, strategies and actions for agricultural development and transformation.
This was instrumental in raising the profile of agriculture to the center of development agenda at national, regional and global levels.
It also facilitated mobilization and alignment of multi-stakeholders partnerships and investments around National Agriculture and Food Security Investment Plans (NAIPs) that have been developed through the CAADP process.
In 2013, after a decade of implementation, demand for more clarity was expressed by AU Member States and stakeholders in terms of further elaboration and refinement of the CAADP targets,
and assessment of technical efficacy and political feasibility for success in agricultural transformation.
There was a need to move from planning to effective implementation for results and impact in changing people’s lives because most of the NAIPs were not fully implemented.
This underperformance was due to various reasons such as inadequate funding, no appropriate institutions and policies, low leadership capacity, weak mutual accountability system.
This resulted in the AU Heads of State and Government adopting the Declaration on Accelerated Agricultural Growth and Transformation (Doc. Assembly/AU/2(XXIII)) in June 2014 in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea.
Among other commitments, the leaders committed to Mutual Accountability to Results and Actions by conducting a biennial Agricultural Review Process that involves tracking, monitoring and reporting
on implementation progress in achieving the provisions of the Malabo Declaration.
This Commitment translates, this time, to a stronger political will for AU Leaders to effectively achieve Agricultural Growth and Transformation on
the Continent by 2025 for improved livelihoods and shared prosperity for African citizens.
The Biennial Reporting Mechanism was established. The seven (7) Malabo Commitments were translated into seven (7) thematic areas of performance:
- Re-committing to the Principles and Values of the CAADP Process;
- Enhancing investment finance in agriculture;
- Ending Hunger in Africa by 2025;
- Reducing poverty by half, by 2025, through inclusive agricultural growth and transformation;
- Boosting intra-African trade in agricultural commodities and services;
- Enhancing resilience of livelihoods and production systems to climate variability and other related risks; and
- Strengthening mutual accountability to actions and results.
Selected indicators were then summarized in an innovative tool called the “Africa Agricultural Transformation Scorecard (AATS)” in order to assess each country’s performance.
The AATS highlights each country’s five best and worst indicators and provides specific policy recommendations based on the country’s performance.
The report sets the 2017 benchmark at 3.94 out of 10 as the minimum score for a country to be considered on track towards achieving the Malabo commitments by 2025.
The historic first Biennial Review was presented to the AU Assembly of Heads of State and Government. A strong presence during the presentation indicated the high level of attention the topic receives.
The report reveals that only 20 of the 47 Member States that reported are on track towards achieving the commitments set out in the Malabo Declaration.
Of 27 are lacking behind. Awards were given to the best performing countries Rwanda (1st), Mali (2nd) and Morocco (3rd). They were followed by (5.5), Ethiopia (5.3),
Togo (4.9), Malawi (4.9), Kenya (4.8), Mauritania (4.8), Burundi (4.7), and Uganda (4.5).
In addition, the countries performing best on the indicators related to the theme “Intra-African Trade”, were recognized: Lesotho for volume of trade and Botswana for trade facilitation.
Regionally, East Africa performed best with a score of 4.2, followed by Southern Africa with a score of 4.02.
Implementing CAADP on country level has the potential to transform the agricultural sector on the entire African continent.
The Biennial Review has generated a window of opportunity whereby AU member states are newly motivated to push the domestication of CAADP.
Its significance for country-level processes in the sector should therefore not be underestimated.